Old ruins

Photo took in Sicily, Italy

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Stefania

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Sunflowers

“A great fire burns within me, but no one stops to warm themselves at it, and passers-by only see a wisp of smoke” -Vincent Van Gogh

Hi, my fellow readers! I’m sorry, I haven’t been really active later but I’m busy with school and other assignments. Whatever, I’ve been also struggling with finding inspirations for my posts. Any suggestion? Feel free to tell me, your opinions matter.

I took these photos so if you want to save them, just tell me 🙂

I love sunflowers and photography is my passion so I wanted to share with you all. You can find me on Instagram, EyeEm and some of my photos are on Getty Images.

Have a fun Sunday!

-Stefania

Palmira

Palmira, nota ai giorni nostri come Tadmor, trova in una oasi a 240 km a nord-est di Damasco e 200 km a sud-ovest della città di Deir-ez-Zor, che si trova sul fiume Eufrate. È particolarmente nota per essere stata la capitale del Regno indipendente di Palmira, sotto il governo della regina Zenobia.

È stato per lungo tempo un vitale centro carovaniero, tanto da essere soprannominata la Sposa del deserto, per i viaggiatori ed i mercanti che attraversavano il deserto siriaco per collegare l’Occidente. Ebbe un notevole sviluppo tra il I e il II secolo d.C.

Il nome Tadmor è la traduzione letterale della parola greca Palmyra (“palma”).

La città, nota col nome di Tadmor nel II millennio a.C, è menzionata per la prima volta in documenti provenienti dagli archivi assiri di Kanech, in Cappadocia, nel XIX secolo a.C. Vien citata anche nella Bibbia come una città del deserto fortificata da Salomone.

Quando i Seleucidi presero il controllo della Siria nel 323 a.C. la città venne abbandonata a se stessa. Fiorì come città carovaniera nel I secolo a.C., sviluppando un dialetto proprio e un proprio alfabeto.

Dopo esser stata annessa alla provincia romana di Siria, nel 19 d.C., sotto il regno di Tiberio divenne una città prospera e venne costruito il tempio di Baal. Fu anche descritta da Plinio il Vecchio, nel suo Naturalis Historia, come una città ricca e di rilievo per la posizione strategica che ricopriva. Essa era infatti era importante per i commerci tra Persia, India, Cina e l’Impero Romano.

Nel 129 Adriano visitò Palmira e la proclamò città libera, dandole il nome di Palmira Hadriana.

La presenza di un grande numero di Palmireni che prestano servizio militare nelle truppe romane di stanza nelle varie province dell’Impero e la vivace attività dei suoi mercanti, che aprono stazioni commerciali a Roma, facilitano la diffusione della cultura artistica di Palmira nel mondo romano, influenzandone inevitabilmente le arti.

La città fa da cerniera tra il mondo ellenistico romano e l’Impero partico, e contribuisce di conseguenza a diffondere verso occidente la cultura figurativa dei parti. Si ottiene in tal modo non soltanto uno scambio fra le due esperienza artistiche, ma anche una rielaborazione locale di tematiche e forme espressive. Perdute le statue onorarie, le testimonianze più significative della scultura sono rappresentante fai numerosi pregevoli altorilievi di carattere funerario, destinati a essere collocati lungo le pareti delle tombe a camera. I defunti vi sono raffigurati a mezzo busto o eretti. Con grande frequenza, sullo sfondo, compare qualche elemento che riassume la vita del defunto. Le vesti e le calzature dono di tipo barbarico e hanno bordi fittamente ricamati con elementi vegetali, mentre u monili sono sfarzosi e di chiara derivazione. I defunti sono raffigurati entro medaglioni retti da Vittorie alate poggiati su globi, oppure in piedi fra tralci di vite.

Zenobia

Regina di Palmira (sec. 3º d. C.), seconda moglie di Odenato, alla morte del marito (266-67) tenne il potere in nome del figlio Vaballato, seguendo una politica ostile all’Impero romano e favorevole ai Persiani. Estese il suo dominio prima sulla Siria e sui paesi limitrofi, poi sull’Egitto, del quale s’impossessò il generale Zabda, e quindi allargò la sua conquista all’Asia Minore, senza riuscire peraltro a impadronirsi della Bitinia. Strinse in seguito una convenzione con l’imperatore che le lasciava i territori conquistati e conferiva a Vaballato i titoli già di suo padre Odenato.

Poiché Zenobia mirava alla creazione di uno stato indipendente da Roma, batté moneta propria, e suo figlio assunse i titoli di Imperator Caesar Augustus. Ma Aureliano riprese l’Egitto, ricuperò l’Asia Minore fino al Tauro, batté sull’Oronte l’esercito palmireno guidato da Zabda e occupò Antiochia. Battuti definitivamente i Palmireni presso Emesa, Zenobia fuggì prima a Palmira e poi tentò di recarsi presso i Persiani. Fu però arrestata, condotta a Roma e fatta sfilare nel trionfo di Aureliano. Passò gli ultimi anni relegata in una villa presso Tivoli. Da allora Palmira decadde rapidamente. Fu parzialmente ricostruita sotto Diocleziano, e nel 528 Giustiniano ripristinò le mura della città. Nel 638 fu conquistata dagli Arabi e circa un secolo dopo, nella lotta civile per il califfato, fu rasa al suolo per ordine dell’ultimo sovrano omayyade.

Venne scoperta solamente nel 1751 da una comitiva di disegnatori. Solo nel XIX vennero effettuati i primi studi storico-scientifici.

Fonti: Wikipedia ed Enciclopedia Treccani.

-Stefania

Lost fields

Qui mi ritrovo nella bellissima campagna di Enna, in Sicilia. Mi stavo dirigendo a Regalbuto, un piccolo paese dove si trova uno dei laghi più grandi in Sicilia. Il lago di Pozzillo si trova un po’ più lontano dalla città e offre dei parchi naturalistici stupendi. Avete anche la possibilità di noleggiare una canoa, fare un giro in bici o semplicemente sedervi sotto l’ombra degli alberi e godervi il venticello fresco che soffia il pomeriggio.

Vi consiglio veramente di visitare l’entroterra siciliano, non ve ne pentirete!

The Iliad

“The wrath sing, goddess, of Peleus’ son, Achilles, that destructive wrath which brought countless woes upon the Achaeans, and sent forth to Hades many valiant souls of heroes, and made them themselves spoil for dogs and every bird; thus the plan of Zeus came to fulfillment, from the time when1 first they parted in strife Atreus’ son, king of men, and brilliant Achilles.”

The plot.

Nine years after the start of the Trojan War, the Greek (“Achaean”) army sacks Chryse, a town allied with Troy. During the battle, the Achaeans capture a pair of beautiful maidens, Chryseis and Briseis. Agamennon, the leader of the Achaean forces, takes Chryseis as his prize, and Achilles, the Achaeans’ greatest warrior, claims Briseis. Chryseis’s father, Chryses, who serves as a priest of the god Apollo, offers an enormous ransom in return for his daughter, but Agamemnon refuses to give Chryseis back. Chryses then prays to Apollo, who sends a plague upon the Achaean camp.After many Achaeans die, Agamemnon consults the prophet Calchas to determine the cause of the plague. When he learns that Chryseis is the cause, he reluctantly gives her up but then demands Briseis from Achilles as compensation. Furious at this insult, Achilles returns to his tent in the army camp and refuses to fight in the war any longer. He vengefully yearns to see the Achaeans destroyed and asks his mother, the sea-nymph Thetis, to enlist the services of Zeus, king of the gods, toward this end. The Trojan and Achaean sides have declared a cease-fire with each other, but now the Trojans breach the treaty and Zeus comes to their aid.With Zeus supporting the Trojans and Achilles refusing to fight, the Achaeans suffer great losses. Several days of fierce conflict ensue, including duels between Paris and Menelaus and between Hector and Ajax. The Achaeans make no progress; even the heroism of the great Achaean warrior Diomedes proves fruitless. The Trojans push the Achaeans back, forcing them to take refuge behind the ramparts that protect their ships. The Achaeans begin to nurture some hope for the future when a nighttime reconnaissance mission by Diomedes and Odysseus yields information about the Trojans’ plans, but the next day brings disaster. Several Achaean commanders become wounded, and the Trojans break through the Achaean ramparts. They advance all the way up to the boundary of the Achaean camp and set fire to one of the ships. Defeat seems imminent, because without the ships, the army will be stranded at Troy and almost certainly destroyed.Concerned for his comrades but still too proud to help them himself, Achilles agrees to a plan proposed by Nestor that will allow his beloved friend Patroclus to take his place in battle, wearing his armor. Patroclus is a fine warrior, and his presence on the battlefield helps the Achaeans push the Trojans away from the ships and back to the city walls. But the counterattack soon falters. Apollo knocks Patroclus’s armor to the ground, and Hector slays him. Fighting then breaks out as both sides try to lay claim to the body and armor. Hector ends up with the armor, but the Achaeans, thanks to a courageous effort by Menelaus and others, manage to bring the body back to their camp. When Achilles discovers that Hector has killed Patroclus, he fills with such grief and rage that he agrees to reconcile with Agamemnon and rejoin the battle. Thetis goes to Mount Olympus and persuades the god Hephaestus to forge Achilles a new suit of armor, which she presents to him the next morning. Achilles then rides out to battle at the head of the Achaean army.Meanwhile, Hector, not expecting Achilles to rejoin the battle, has ordered his men to camp outside the walls of Troy. But when the Trojan army glimpses Achilles, it flees in terror back behind the city walls. Achilles cuts down every Trojan he sees. Strengthened by his rage, he even fights the god of the river Xanthus, who is angered that Achilles has caused so many corpses to fall into his streams. Finally, Achilles confronts Hector outside the walls of Troy. Ashamed at the poor advice that he gave his comrades, Hector refuses to flee inside the city with them. Achilles chases him around the city’s periphery three times, but the goddess Athena finally tricks Hector into turning around and fighting Achilles. In a dramatic duel, Achilles kills Hector. He then lashes the body to the back of his chariot and drags it across the battlefield to the Achaean camp. Upon Achilles’ arrival, the triumphant Achaeans celebrate Patroclus’s funeral with a long series of athletic games in his honor. Each day for the next nine days, Achilles drags Hector’s body in circles around Patroclus’s funeral bier.At last, the gods agree that Hector deserves a proper burial. Zeus sends the god Hermes to escort King Priam, Hector’s father and the ruler of Troy, into the Achaean camp. Priam tearfully pleads with Achilles to take pity on a father bereft of his son and return Hector’s body. He invokes the memory of Achilles’ own father, Peleus. Deeply moved, Achilles finally relents and returns Hector’s corpse to the Trojans. Both sides agree to a temporary truce, and Hector receives a hero’s funeral.

Characters list.

Achilles – The son of the military man Peleus and the sea-nymph Thetis. The most powerful warrior in The Iliad, Achilles commands the Myrmidons, soldiers from his homeland of Phthia in Greece. Proud and headstrong, he takes offense easily and reacts with blistering indignation when he perceives that his honor has been slighted. Achilles’ wrath at Agamemnon for taking his war prize, the maiden Briseis, forms the main subject of The Iliad.

Agamemnon (also called “Atrides”)  – King of Mycenae and leader of the Achaean army; brother of King Menelaus of Sparta. Arrogant and often selfish, Agamemnon provides the Achaeans with strong but sometimes reckless and self-serving leadership. Like Achilles, he lacks consideration and forethought. Most saliently, his tactless appropriation of Achilles’ war prize, the maiden Briseis, creates a crisis for the Achaeans, when Achilles, insulted, withdraws from the war.

Patroclus – Achilles’ beloved friend, companion, and advisor, Patroclus grew up alongside the great warrior in Phthia, under the guardianship of Peleus. Devoted to both Achilles and the Achaean cause, Patroclus stands by the enraged Achilles but also dons Achilles’ terrifying armor in an attempt to hold the Trojans back.

Calchas – An important soothsayer. Calchas’s identification of the cause of the plague ravaging the Achaean army in Book 1 leads inadvertently to the rift between Agamemnon and Achilles that occupies the first nineteen books of The Iliad.

Peleus – Achilles’ father and the grandson of Zeus. Although his name often appears in the epic, Peleus never appears in person. Priam powerfully invokes the memory of Peleus when he convinces Achilles to return Hector’s corpse to the Trojans in Book 24.

Hector – A son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba, Hector is the mightiest warrior in the Trojan army. He mirrors Achilles in some of his flaws, but his bloodlust is not so great as that of Achilles. He is devoted to his wife, Andromache, and son, Astyanax, but resents his brother Paris for bringing war upon their family,

Priam – King of Troy and husband of Hecuba, Priam is the father of fifty Trojan warriors, including Hector and Paris. Though too old to fight, he has earned the respect of both the Trojans and the Achaeans by virtue of his level-headed, wise, and benevolent rule. He treats Helen kindly, though he laments the war that her beauty has sparked.

Hecuba – Queen of Troy, wife of Priam, and mother of Hector and Paris.

Paris (also known as “Alexander”) –  A son of Priam and Hecuba and brother of Hector. Paris’s abduction of the beautiful Helen, wife of Menelaus, sparked the Trojan War. Paris is self-centered and often unmanly. He fights effectively with a bow and arrow (never with the more manly sword or spear) but often lacks the spirit for battle and prefers to sit in his room making love to Helen while others fight for him, thus earning both Hector’s and Helen’s scorn.

Chryseis – Chryses’ daughter, a priest of Apollo in a Trojan-allied town.

Briseis – A war prize of Achilles. When Agamemnon is forced to return Chryseis to her father, he appropriates Briseis as compensation, sparking Achilles’ great rage.

Chryses – A priest of Apollo in a Trojan-allied town.

The Gods and Immortals

Zeus– King of the gods and husband of Hera, Zeus claims neutrality in the mortals’ conflict and often tries to keep the other gods from participating in it. However, he throws his weight behind the Trojan side for much of the battle after the sulking Achilles has his mother, Thetis, ask the god to do so.

Hera – Queen of the gods and Zeus’ wife, Hera is a headstrong woman. She often goes behind Zeus’ back in matters on which they disagree, working with Athena to crush the Trojans, whom she passionately hates.

Athena – The goddess of wisdom, purposeful battle, and the womanly arts; Zeus’s daughter. Like Hera, Athena passionately hates the Trojans and often gives the Achaeans valuable aid.

Thetis – A sea-nymph and the devoted mother of Achilles, Thetis gets Zeus to help the Trojans and punish the Achaeans at the request of her angry son. When Achilles finally rejoins the battle, she commissions Hephaestus to design him a new suit of armor.

Apollo – A son of Zeus and twin brother of the goddess Artemis, Apollo is god of the sun and the arts, particularly music. He supports the Trojans and often intervenes in the war on their behalf.

Main themes.

Faith and free will: Greek literature and mythology rely heavily on the theme of fate and free will. Homer’s The Iliad is no exception. The fates of Achilles and Hector are brought up throughout the poem. More importantly, the poem seems to rest on the notion that man does not have a choice in how his life will turn out because it has already been chosen for him. For example, in Book 1, Thetis, Achilles’ mother, laments the birth of her son, alluding to his coming death during the Trojan War. Thetis behaves as if there is no escaping what has been decided by fate. Furthermore, in the following quote in Book 9, Hector treats fate and free will in the same manner:

‘Why so much grief for me?

No man will hurl me down to Death, against my fate.

And fate? No one alive has ever escaped it,

neither brave man nor coward, I tell you –

it’s born with us the day that we are born.’

Hector makes it clear to his wife, Andromache, that there is nothing anybody can do to prevent his death should it be slated to happen. According to this perspective, men have no say in the direction of their lives because fate has already decided the outcome.

Love and Friendship: the power of love and friendship is explored throughout The Iliad and is a main source of many conflicts. Romantic love, parental love, and friendship between warriors are the most common forms of love and friendship shown in the poem. The affinity between warriors is incredibly powerful, as witnessed between Achilles and Patroclus. The brotherly love between Achilles and Patroclus is more intense than any other warrior relationship exhibited in the poem, as demonstrated by the following quote spoken by Patroclus to Achilles:

‘But one thing more. A last request – grant it, please.

Never bury my bones apart from yours, Achilles,

let them lie together …

just as we grew up together in your house.’

The two men are so close that Patroclus wants to be buried along with Achilles in the same way as family would be buried together. Friendship between warriors is necessary to maintain morale during wartime, but it also extends beyond the battlefield. This brotherly friendship is what sparks Achilles’ decision to avenge Patroclus’s death by killing Hector. After killing Hector, Priam comes to claim his son’s body, and it is the understanding of love and friendship that convinces Achilles to let Priam have his son’s body.

This is also called φιλία.

The glory of war: throughout the Iliad the theme of glory in war is developed. Agamemnon displays his power that he thinks he has through disrespecting the gods. He has felt so much glory and fame from won wars that he seems to think that he is untouchable. There are other warriors such as Achilles that do no feel the same because they realize from past mistakes and trials that you cannot always win. For example, Achilles gave up many comforts that he could have had from staying home. He gave up a long and boring life that could have been spent with other people enjoying spoils. Instead the idea of going to war and proving his honor and integrity is a path that he follows sometimes willingly and other times it seems not. 

Υβρις (hybris): describes a personality quality of extreme or foolish pride or dangerous overconfidence, often in combination with (or synonymous with) arrogance.

Burial while martial epics naturally touch upon the subject of burial, The Iliad lingers over it. The burial of Hector is given particular attention, as it marks the melting of Achilles’ crucial rage. The mighty Trojan receives a spectacular funeral that comes only after an equally spectacular fight over his corpse. Patroclus’s burial also receives much attention in the text, as Homer devotes an entire book to the funeral and games in the warrior’s honor. The poem also describes burials unconnected to particular characters, such as in Book 7, when both armies undertake a large-scale burial of their largely unnamed dead. The Iliad’s interest in burial partly reflects the interests of ancient Greek culture as a whole, which stressed proper burial as a requirement for the soul’s peaceful rest. However, it also reflects the grim outlook of The Iliad, its interest in the relentlessness of fate and the impermanence of human life.

In the next article, I will write about the Odyssey.

-Stefania

Literature

Hi everyone!

Sorry for my absence, I swear I will write more.

However, I want to start writing about literature so let’s talk about my beloved Greeks!

I’ve always been fascinated by the Ancient Greece, mythology, how they lived etc. In fact, I study ancient greek (with latin too) and I often translate their texts. If you’ve ever had the opportunity to translate, you’ve probably seen how your vision of things has changed (or it’s just me?). When I hear a word, for example, I automatically understand the basic concept without looking for it because I just remembered the greek word (it mainly happens with latin though but it depends on the language). The study of these dead languages also helped me with learning the modern languages such as French or Spanish because I can recognize easily their roots and then learn intuitively.

Here we go! Ancient greek literature goes from the from the earliest texts until the time of the Byzantine Empire, when the last neoplatonic school was closed by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian (VIII century to 529 a.C.). Before the VIII century, there was a period of profound cultural crisis called the “Greek Dark Ages” and it went from from the end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 1100 BC to the first signs of the Greek poleis, city states, in the 9th century BC. During this time, nothing was written and the transmission of informations or poems was mainly oral. The earliest surviving works of ancient Greek literature, dating back to the early Archaic period(VIII-VI BC.), are the two epic poems “The Iliad”and “The Odyssey”, set in the Mycenaean era. These two epics, along with the “Homeric Hymns” and the two poems of “Hesiod”, “Theogony” and “Works and Days” comprised the major foundations of the Greek literary tradition that would continue into the Classical (V-IV BC), Hellenistic (323 BC-31 BC)and Roman Periods.

How did these texts arrive in our centuries?

After 529 AC, the greek language wasn’t spoken anymore in Europe so it was mainly translated by Arabs (it was replaced by Latin). We have texts written by the monks or coming from Toledo, Baghdad and Palermo, where schools for translation were located. Most of them couldn’t speak greek so, when an element was unclear, they used to write “Graecum est, non legitur” which that means “It’s greek and impossible to read”. This caused a lot of mistakes in their transcription. Only in the XIV century, greek was studied again, mainly in Florence and by important italian authors such as Boccaccio who looked for lost books or poems in old monasteries.

About the greek language.

The earliest known Greek writings are Mycenaean , written in the Linear B syllabary on clay tablets. These documents contain prosaic records largely concerned with trade (lists, inventories etc.); no real literature has been discovered. Michael Ventris and John Chadwick, the original decipherers of Linear B, state that literature almost certainly existed in Mycenaean Greek , but it was either not written down or, if it was, it was on wooden tablets, which did not survive the destruction of the Mycenaean palaces. Then we can find 3 important dialects such as Aeolic, Doric and Ionic. Aeolic was spoken mainly in Boeotia (a region in Central Greece); Thessaly, in the Aegean island of Lesbos; and the Greek colonies of Asia Minor (Aeolis). The Aeolic dialect shows many archaisms in comparison to the other Ancient Greek dialects (Attic, Ionic, Doric) and it’s widely known as the language of Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene. Aeolic poetry mostly uses four classical meters known as the Aeolics: Glyconic (the most basic form of Aeolic line), hendecasyllabic verse, Sapphic stanza, and Alcaic stanza (the latter two are respectively named for Sappho and Alcaeus).

Doric was spoken in the southern and eastern Peloponnese as well as in Sicily, Epirus, Southern Italy, Crete, Rhodes, some islands in the southern Aegean Sea and some cities on the south east coast of Anatolia.

Ionic is generally divided into two major time periods, Old Ionic (or Old Ionian) and New Ionic (or New Ionian). The transition between the two is not clearly defined, but 600 BC is a good approximation. The works of Homer ( The Iliad, The Odyssey, and theHomeric Hymns) and of Hesiod were written in a literary dialect called Homeric Greek or Epic Greek, which largely comprises Old Ionic, with some borrowings from the neighboring Aeolic dialect to the north. The poet Archilocus wrote in late Old Ionic.The most famous New Ionic authors are Anacreon, Theognis, Herodotus and Hippocrates. The meter was dactylic hexameter.

(Linear B)

The main division in greek literature was between prose and poetry. Within poetry there were epic poetry, lyric and drama. Lyric and drama were further divided into more genres: lyric in four ( elegiac, iambic, monodic lyric and choral lyric); drama in three (tragedy, comedy and pastoral drama).Prose literature can largely be said to begin with Herodotus so we have historiography (with Thucydide too). We also have the texts written by Philosophers (Aristotle, for example.)

In the next article, I will talk in deep about the epic poetry, Homer and his poems.

See you next time!

-Stefania

Celts and the death.

The Celts used to consider the death as an interruption of a really long life, like a bridge between a life and another. So they believed in reincarnation but it was more than this. There was a metamorphosis, metempsychosis (a term in the Greek language referring to transmigration of the soul) and, in the end, the reincarnation. That time bewteen lives was spent in the reign of the King Tech Dunn, the Donn. Donn was ”The Land of the Young” or ”The land of the living”. This land was probably on or under Bulle Island or the Beara Peninsula. However, the Underworld was called by Celts ”Annwyn”. It was ruled by Arawn, later by Gwynn ap Nudd, and it was essentially a world of delihghts and eternal youth where there was no disease and the food was really abudant. No one could reach it, except when they died or when  they found the door.k.jpg

Middle Welsh sources suggest  that the word was recognised as meaning ”very deep” or it could also mean ”underworld” according to the original term ”ande- dubnos”, a common Gallo- Brittonic word. In the Annwyn, according to the traditions, there were the descendants of the Goddes Danu, called Tùatha Dé Dannan. They were retreated into the Otherworld after they were defeated by the Milesians. The specifical Irish term for this is Aes Sidhe.

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Sometimes, a lot of heroes fought in the Underworld and they could remain there forever, without getting older. About the entrance to the Underworld, we could talk about Bran (”The Journey of Bran”) who arrived on a boat through the sea, but someone could even get there through a cave or a lake.  According to the religion, there were Paradises in the Avalon Island, also known as ”The western paradises”, where the Goddess lived. It was ruled by the nine sisters, including Morgana. These Paradises were described as gardens where apple trees of the eternal life grew. The Irish Kings received the apple of the immortality and they left the world at the sunset. During the Samhain was also possible to move from a world to another. Samhain is a Gaelic festival marking the end of the harvest season and the beginning of winter or the year. ( 31st October- 1st November). We can also remember the other parts of the year.tumblr_n06i6fmRzS1t7uz2fo1_500.jpg

Celtic burial and funeral rites.

For a warrior, it’s not surprising that to the Celts, the most honorable death was to die in a battle. Depending on the time period and which tribe you were in, you might be buried, cremated or have your ashes buried. According to  Caesar, dead people were burned on a pyre. Sheep and oxen were slain and their fat was placed on the body and their carcasses around it. Jars of honey and oil were placed around the body. The loved horses, dogs and slaves were slain, their bodies piled on top. Then it was set on fire and the ashes were taken out and laid in a gold urn. The body was washed and wrapped in a death shirt, called an Eslene. The body was laid out with burning candles in the home for seven days. People would keen over the dead or praise him or her. Three days after the body was laid out, a feast was organized in his/her honor. The body had a bowl placed on the chest where the people used to put food and coins for the dead to use in the next life.On the morning of the burial, the Druid came in the house and,  using a rod, he misured the body for the resting place. Over time and with the diffusion of Christianity, the was changed and they assumed a Christian tone.dd071ec32cb15d6b767f7ba20cd46e48