Libri consigliati: nuove letture che potrebbero farti innamorare

Ho amato ciascuno di questi libri e mi sono sentita in dovere di condividerli con voi!

Iniziamo con..

La grande storia del tempo, Stephen Hawking

60b71c39-1173-42ed-8f89-509298ba949d

 

“Che cosa sappiamo realmente dell’universo? Qual è la sua natura? Da dove è venuto e dove sta andando? Le nostre conoscenze sono fondate? E su cosa si basano? Stephen Hawking torna a occuparsi dei misteri de cosmo, e lo fa senza rinunciare al suo stile diretto e comunicativo. Aggiornandoci sulle recenti scoperte sia sul piano teorico che su quello delle osservazioni empiriche, Hawking descrive gli ultimi progressi compiuti nella ricerca di una teoria unificata di tutte le forze della fisica: la teoria delle ”superstringhe”  e le ”dualità” tra modelli apparentemente diversi; i tunnel spazio temporali e l’affascinante questione dei viaggi nel tempo.”

 

 Cose di Cosa nostra, Giovanni Falcone698e695a-9c93-4dd0-a863-390a4465ecdf

 

Giovanni Falcone racconta la società siciliana e ne esalta tutte le caratteristiche che rimangono celate agli occhi dei siciliani stessi. Ne evidenzia il silenzio, la collaborazione, l’idea dell’onore  e tratta di tutti i casi che ha analizzato nella sua carriera, collaborando con i cosiddetti  ”pentiti” e venendo per primo a contatto con i loschi traffici mafiosi.

Ve lo consiglio, soprattutto se siete degli appassionati di storia o volete sapere di più sui meccanismi nascosti della mafia.

 

Antigone, Edipo Re ed Edipo a Colono, Sofocle

b516a3d0-5355-4b9d-baef-10172c60de2b

Per gli appassionati di lettura greca, consiglio le tragedie di Sofocle, ricche di emozioni e di colpi di scena.

Composte nella seconda metà del V secolo a.C., le tragedie del ciclo di Edipo mettono in scena una delle più dolenti rappresentazioni del destino umano. Edipo è il simbolo universale dell’eterno dissidio e necessità, della colpa e del fato. È riuscito a conquistare il potere grazie alla sua intelligenza ma, per volere degli Dei, lo perde a causa di una grande scoperta, che gli arrecherà un grande dolore e lo costringerà ad allontanarsi da tutto e da tutti.

“Non dire felice uomo mortale, prima che abbia varcato il termine della vita senza aver patito dolore.”

 

Quiet, Susan Cain

15e35ce1-2974-4848-8d71-b355109688c2

“Il mondo è pieno di introversi: li vediamo, anche se non li sentiamo. A volte ci disturbano, con la loro reticenza. Altre volte ci affaticano, perché cedono sempre il passo a noi. Altre volte ancora li apprezziamo, perché sembrano innocui. Sono almeno un terzo delle persone che conosciamo: sono quelli che preferiscono ascoltare, invece che parlare; che preferiscono leggere invece che fare vita sociale; quelli che creano e inventano, ma che non ostentano la loro opinione. A molti di loro dobbiamo alcuni dei più grandi progressi dell’umanità: dalla teoria della gravità all’invenzione del computer, da Harry Potter a Google. Ma come trovano spazio gli introversi in una società che sembra solo premiare le personalità estroverse, competitive ed egocentriche? Susan Cain accende un riflettore sugli introversi che sono fra di noi, spiegandone la forza e il ruolo nella nostra società.”

 

Buona lettura!

-Stefania

Advertisements

Reinassance humanism, rebirth and development

Reinassace humanism (in Italian “Rinascimento” and “umanesimo”) is the study if Classical antiquities, at first in Italy and then all across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. It was about the use of knowledge, love and a sort of excessive interest in the past, used to change the future.

Pietro Perugino.

Some of the first humanist were great collectors of antique manuscripts, including Petrarch, Boccaccio and Bracciolini. Petrarch was called the “Father of the Humanism” because of his devotion or loyalty to Greek and Roman literature.

Other humanists were: Cosimo de Medici (1389-1464), Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494), Machiavelli (1469-1527), Pietro Bembo (1470-1555), Ludovico Ariosto (1474-1533), Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529), Giordano Bruno (1548-1600).

In Italy, the humanist educational program won a rapid consent and by the mid-15th century, many from the upper classes had received a humanist education.

The migration waves of Byzantine Greek scholars helped the revival or Greek and Roman literature and science. Many humanist were churchmen, for example Pope Pius II or Leo X and the humanistic culture improved the understanding and the translations of Biblical and early Christian texts, both before and after the Protestant Reformation.

Inevitably the rediscover or classical philosophy and science challenged the traditional religious beliefs (for example, the rediscovery of Epicurism).

The school of Athens, Raffaello Sanzio.

Another phenomenon developed in these centuries and it was the patronage of arts. Rich people from the upper classes used to pay artists and poets to write and produce their paintings.

Jan Van Eyck, “Madonna di Lucca”

The movable type was also invented in 1455, by Johanes Gutenberg.

-Stefania

Black and white

White pages

And dark lines

Mixed with entities

That I can’t define

But they show in front of me

Telling me how to live

In a black page

Don’t forget to read my book “The shadow through” on Wattpad, especially if you want to read more poems!

 

Ai miei lettori italiani.

Vi andrebbe di leggere i testi di una ragazza (sempre su Wattpad) che vi giurò, scrive benissimo! Ecco il link, se siete interessati.

-Stefania

Leonardo Da Vinci

Leonardo da Vinci was an Italian painter, draftsman, sculptor, architect, and engineer.

Leonardo’s parents were unmarried at the time of his birth. His father, Ser Piero, was a Florentine notary and landlord, and his mother, Caterina, was a young peasant woman who shortly thereafter married an artisan. Leonardo grew up on his father’s family’s estate, where he was treated as a “legitimate” son and received the usual elementary education of that day: reading, writing, and arithmetic. Leonardo did not seriously study Latin, the key language of traditional learning, until much later, when he acquired a working knowledge of it on his own. Leonardo’s artistic inclinations must have appeared early. When he was about 15, his father, who enjoyed a high reputation in the Florence community, apprenticed him to artist Andrea del Verrocchio. In Verrocchio’s renowned workshop Leonardo received a multifaceted training that included painting and sculpture as well as the technical-mechanical arts.download

(1482-99)

Leonardo spent 17 years in Milan, until Ludovico’s fall from power in 1499. He was listed in the register of the royal household as pictor et ingeniarius ducalis (“painter and engineer of the duke”). Leonardo’s gracious but reserved personality and elegant bearing were well-received in court circles. Highly esteemed, he was constantly kept busy as a painter and sculptor and as a designer of court festivals. He was also frequently consulted as a technical adviser in the fields of architecture, fortifications, and military matters, and he served as a hydraulic and mechanical engineer.

From about 1483 to 1486, he worked on the altar painting The Virgin of the Rocks, a project that led to 10 years of litigation between the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception, which commissioned it, and Leonardo; for uncertain purposes, this legal dispute led Leonardo to create another version of the work in about 1508.download (1).jpg

During this first Milanese period he also made one of his most famous works, the monumental wall painting Last Supper (1495–98) in the refectory of the monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie.http_%2F%2Fi.huffpost.com%2Fgen%2F4477044%2Fimages%2Fn-CENACOLO-628x314.jpg

Also of note is the decorative ceiling painting (1498) he made for the Sala delle Asse in the Milan Castello Sforzesco.sforzesco-Edificio-ambienti-Sala-asse-6.2-2013.06-Ranzani-Lunetta.jpg

Leonardo devoted 12 years to create a monumental equestrian statue in bronze to be erected in honour of Francesco Sforza, the founder of the Sforza dynasty. But, because of the imminent danger of war, the metal, ready to be poured, was used to make cannons instead, causing the project to come to a halt. Ludovico’s fall in 1499 sealed the fate of this abortive undertaking, which was perhaps the grandest concept of a monument in the 15th century. The ensuing war left the clay model a heap of ruins.

Then he lived in Florence for  8 years (1500-1508). He started painting the Monna Lisa in 1503 and he had the oppportunity to study more about the human body.shoulderandneck1.jpg

 

He got back to Milan in 1508 and he lived there until 1513. During this second period in Milan, Leonardo created very little as a painter but Leonardo’s scientific activity flourished during this period. His studies in anatomy achieved a new dimension in his collaboration with Marcantonio della Torre, a famous anatomist from Pavia. Leonardo outlined a plan for an overall work that would include not only exact, detailed reproductions of the human body and its organs but would also include comparative anatomy and the whole field of physiology. He even planned to finish his anatomical manuscript in the winter of 1510–11.

card.jpgBeyond that, his manuscripts are replete with mathematical, optical, mechanical, geological, and botanical studies. These investigations became increasingly driven by a central idea: the conviction that force and motion as basic mechanical functions produce all outward forms in organic and inorganic nature and give them their shape. Furthermore, he believed that these functioning forces operate in accordance with orderly, harmonious laws.em

From 1513 to 1519 he lived in Rome where he lived with Giuliano de’ Medici. He left Italy in 1516 and  died at Cloux and was buried in the palace church of Saint-Florentin. The church was devastated during the French Revolution and completely torn down at the beginning of the 19th century; his grave can no longer be located.

Source

Curioisities about Leonardo Da Vinci:

  • he was ambidextrous and paranoid;
  • he was charged with the crime of sodomy;
  • he used to write in reverse;
  • he never finished Monna Lisa;
  • apparently, he was a vegetarian;
  • he had no relationships with women, never married and had no children. Indeed, he wrote in his notebooks that male-female intercourse disgusted him;
  • he was the first to explain why the sky is blue.

-Stefania

L’Europa Centro-Orientale nel basso Medioevo

L’epica cortese.

La fioritura dell’epica cortese è opera di tre maestri: Hartmann von Aue, Wolfram von Eschenbach e Gotfried Von Strassburg. Il primo scrisse l’Erec e l’Iwein, tradotti e rielaborati dagli omonimi testi di Chrétien de Troyes. Egli compone inoltre due poemi di tipo religioso: il Gregorius e L’infelice Enrico. Eschenbach, poeta alla corte di Iangravio Ermanno di Turingia,  completa nel 1210 un vasto e complesso poema di circa 25.000 versi, il Parzival. La fonte è Il conte di Graal di Chrétien de Troyes, ma la materia è profondamente rielaborata e vi si affrontano i temi della colpevolezza dell’uomo e dell’incociliabile contrasto tra la grazia divina e il libero arbitrio. La fiaba del giovane inesperto, che non conosce la paura, si intreccia coni il mito del Graal, simbolo della grazia divina che tocca a chi raggiunge il luogo dove si trova il sacro Graal. Gotfried Von Strassburg  rielaborò il Tristano, la più esemplare storia d’amore e di morte della letteratura cortese. 20abacd548bd6e773d0f1c4064f6f0ee.jpg

La saga dei Nibelunghi.

Contemporaneamente ai poemi cavallereschi dei tre grandi poeti, nel 1200 vengono composti i 39 canti del Nibelungelied. L’anonimo autore proietta la raffinatezza delle corti del suo tempo nel lontano passato, alla corte di Attila, dove si svolge la vicenda selvaggia che riflette i tempi feroci delle grandi nazioni barbariche. I primi 19 canti sono incentrati sulla figura di Sigfrido, l’eroe che ha conquistato il tesoro dei Nibelunghi e ucciso il drago che lo custodiva. Bagnandosi nel sangue del drago, egli si rende invulnerabile il tutto il corpo, tranne che nelle scapole dove si è posata una foglia di tiglio. Sigfrido giunge alla regia di Worms sul Reno e s’innamora di Crimilde, la sorella del re Gunther. In cambio della figlia, lui deve conquistare per il re la regina d’Islanda e ci riesce con successo. Alla fine, Sigfridio viene ucciso perché la regina scopre l’inganno. La seconda parte, circa 20 canti, è incentrata sulla vendetta di Crimilde.                                                                                   La ferocia e la crudeltà che permeano la saga, i temi dominanti del destino ineludibile e del dovere della vendetta non rimandano all’epica cortese ma all’Edda germanica.

I Minnesänger.

maxresdefault.jpg

Continua in Germania per tutto il XII secolo e la prima metà e il XIV la produzione lirica del Minnesänger, i compositori della lirica d’amore ispirata all’esempio dell’arte trobadorica provenzale. La poesia fiorisce specialmente nelle corti di Vienna e di Praga, che garantiscono un clima più sereno, e nella Renania. Nella composizione di Lieder e Leiche si notano talvolta accenti popolareschi e rusticani, di aperta parodia  della tradizionale lirica amorosa, come nell’opera di Tannhauser. L’ultima voce del Minnesang zurighese è J. Hadlaub, che si misura con i diversi stili espressi nel tempo dai Minnesänger. A Zurigo è compilata la maggior raccolta di Minnelieder, comprendente liriche di 140 autori. Vengono scritti anche i Carmina amatoria, potatoria e lusoria (Carmina burana) che suscitano interesse solo per il tono spesso irriverente, ma anche perché costituiscono un importante documento del passaggio dalla metrica quantitativa del latino a quella dei volgari.                                                                                       Una particolare attenzione merita il poema Meier Helmbretcht, composto da W. de Gartenaere, documento incisivo e rivelatore della mentalità del tempo. E’ la storia di un giovane contadino che rifiuta la sua condizione sociale e si pone al servizio di un cavaliere predone, saccheggiando e uccidendo nella sua stessa terra. Accecato e mutilato, tenta di farsi riaccogliere dalla famiglia paterna, ma ne è respinto e finisce impiccato dai contadini che incontra e che lo riconoscono come responsabili dei misfatti del passato. Dopo l’età della cultura cavalleresca si apre un vuoto letterario che dura circa 3 secoli, fino alle soglie dell’età barocca, interrotto da produzioni limitate e senza sviluppo. La ragione sta forse nella povertà di istruzione e nella diffusa miseria.

-Stefania

Giovanni Boccaccio

Boccaccio was the son of a Tuscan merchant, Boccaccio di Chellino (called Boccaccino), and a mother who was probably French. He passed his early childhood rather unhappily in Florence. His father had no sympathy for Boccaccio’s literary inclinations and sent him, not later than 1328, to Naples to learn business, probably in an office of the Bardi, who dominated the court of Naples by means of their loans. In this milieu Boccaccio experienced the aristocracy of the commercial world as well as all that survived of the splendours of courtly chivalry and feudalism. He also studied canon law and mixed with the learned men of the court and the friends and admirers of Petrarch, through whom he came to know the work of Petrarch himself. These years in Naples, moreover, were the years of Boccaccio’s love for Fiammetta, whose person dominates all his literary activity up to the Decameron, in which there also appears a Fiammetta whose character somewhat resembles that of the Fiammetta of his earlier works. It was probably in 1340 that Boccaccio was recalled to Florence by his father, involved in the bankruptcy of the Bardi. From Naples, however, the young Boccaccio brought with him a store of literary work already completed. La caccia di Diana (“Diana’s Hunt”), his earliest work, is a short poem, in terza rima (an iambic verse consisting of stanzas of three lines), of no great merit. Much more important are two works with themes derived from medieval romances: Il filocolo (c. 1336; “The Love Afflicted”), a prose work in five books on the loves and adventures of Florio and Biancofiore (Floire and Blanchefleur); and Il filostrato (c. 1338; “The Love Struck”), a short poem in ottava rima (a stanza form composed of eight 11-syllable lines) telling the story of Troilus and the faithless Criseida. The Teseida (probably begun in Naples and finished in Florence, 1340–41) is an ambitious epic of 12 cantos in ottava rima in which the wars of Theseus serve as a background for the love of two friends, Arcita and Palemone, for the same woman, Emilia; Arcita finally wins her in a tournament but dies immediately. The 10 or 12 years following Boccaccio’s return to Florence are the period of his full maturity, culminating in the Decameron. He died in 1375.Giovanni-Boccaccio-Facts.jpg

Source

The Decameron

Giovanni Boccaccio’s The Decameron is a collection of novellas or short novels written during the 14th century. There are 100 tales contained in the book which is presented together. The book’s title The Decameron combines the two Greek words “deka” meaning ten and “hemera” meaning day. The title can be literally translated as “ten day,” which is also the time frame in which the stories are told by the 7 young women and 3 young men. In the book, each of the ten persons took their turns to tell stories for a day. They did this during their stay at a villa in Fiesole in which they stayed to be safe from the Black Plague. The stories they told vary from love stories, narratives which have tragic endings to erotic tales. This book was originally written in vernacular Florentine and was subsequently translated into many different languages including English. 

Don’t forget to read my poems on Wattpad!

Stefania

Petrarca

0b3555349b.jpeg

Francesco Petrarca—whose anglicized name is Petrarch—was born on July 20, 1304, in Arezzo, Tuscany (now Italy). With his family, he moved to Avignon, France, as a child. In France, Petrarch studied law, as his father had wished. However, his passion was for literature, particularly that of ancient Greece and Rome. After his father’s death in 1326, Petrarch left law to focus on the classics. etrarch became a cleric, making him eligible for ecclesiastical postings, which supported him as he pursued his interest in ancient literature. Traveling as a diplomatic envoy for the Church, he was also able to search for forgotten classical texts. Throughout his lifetime, Petrarch amassed an impressive collection of such texts, which he later bequeathed to Venice in exchange for a house, refuge from the plague. Petrarch’s other passion was writing. His first pieces were poems that he composed after the death of his mother. He would go on to write sonnets, letters, histories and more. Petrarch’s writing was greatly admired during his lifetime, and he was crowned Rome’s poet laureate in 1341. The work Petrarch held in highest regard was his Latin composition Africa, an epic poem about the Second Punic War. His vernacular poems achieved greater renown, however, and would later be used to help create the modern Italian language.Petrarch’s most well-known vernacular compositions were lyrical poems about Laura, a woman he had fallen in unrequited love with after seeing her in an Avignon church on April 6, 1327. Petrarch wrote about Laura—whose true identity has never been verified—for most of his life, even after she died during the Black Death of 1348. When he collected 366 of his vernacular poems in his Rerum vulgarium fragmenta—also known as Rime Sparse (“Scattered Rhymes”) and as Petrarch’s canzoniere (“Petrarch’s songbook”)—his love for Laura was one of the main themes. The collection also contains 317 sonnets; Petrarch was an early practitioner of the form and helped to popularize it. Petrarch passed away just before his 70th birthday, in Arquà (near Padua), Carrara, which is now part of Italy. After retiring to work in his study on July 18, 1374, Petrarch died during the night. His body was discovered the following morning.

Petrach’s canzoniere

Petrarch’s Canzoniere is an innovative collection of poems predominantly celebrating his idealised love for Laura, perhaps a literary invention rather than a real person, whom Petrarch allegedly first saw, in 1327, in the Church of Sainte Claire in Avignon. Mostly using the sonnet form the poems were written in the Italian vernacular rather than Latin, and Petrarch, like Dante, exploited and extended the language to convey a wider range of feeling and expression. As well as his love for Laura, Petrarch communicates not only his own personality but also his humanist, secular and religious values, providing, like Dante, a body of work focussed, in a major way, for the first time in later European literature, on the poet himself, his individuality, and his spiritual journey, although he also looks back to the Roman achievements of Ovid, Horace, and Propertius. The poems were written over a forty year period, the earliest dating from shortly after 1327, and the latest from around 1368.

Source

‘Cercato ò sempre solitaria vita’

I’ve often sought the solitary life

(river-banks know it, and fields and woods)

to escape these dull and clouded minds,

who have lost the road to heaven:

and if my wish in this were granted,

beyond the sweet air of Tuscan country,

I’d still be among those misted hills

where the Sorgue aids my tears and song.

But my fortune, always my enemy,

returns me to this place where I hate

to see my lovely treasure in the dust.

Fate was a friend to the hand that wrote,

at that time, and perhaps not unworthily:

Love saw it, and I know, and my lady.

 

-Stefania

Dante Alighieri-the master of Italian literature

Dante Alighieri is one of the major italian poet of the Late Middle Ages. His Divine Comedy was originally called Comedia but then christened ”Divina” (Divine) by Giovanni Boccaccio. It’s widely considered one of the most important poems of the Middle Ages and the greatest literary work in the italian language.

Life

Source

Dante Alighieri was born in 1265 to a family with a history of involvement in the complex Florentine political scene, and this setting would become a feature in his Inferno years later. Dante’s mother died only a few years after his birth, and when Dante was around 12 years old, it was arranged that he would marry Gemma Donati, the daughter of a family friend. Around 1285, the pair married, but Dante was in love with another woman—Beatrice Portinari, who would be a huge influence on Dante and whose character would form the backbone of Dante’s Divine Comedy. Dante met Beatrice when she was but nine years old, and he had apparently experienced love at first sight. The pair were acquainted for years, but Dante’s love for Beatrice was “courtly” (which could be called an expression of love and admiration, usually from afar) and unrequited. Beatrice died unexpectedly in 1290, and five years later Dante published Vita Nuova (The New Life), which details his tragic love for Beatrice. Around the time of Beatrice’s death, Dante began to immerse himself in the study of philosophy and the machinations of the Florentine political scene. Florence was then was a tumultuous city, with factions representing the papacy and the empire continually at odds, and Dante held a number of important public posts. In 1302, however, he fell out of favor and was exiled for life by the leaders of the Black Guelphs (among them, Corso Donati, a distant relative of Dante’s wife), the political faction in power at the time and who were in league with Pope Boniface VIII. In his exile, Dante traveled and wrote, conceiving The Divine Comedy, and he withdrew from all political activities. In 1304, he seems to have gone to Bologna, where he began his Latin treatise “De Vulgari Eloquentia” (“The Eloquent Vernacular”), in which he urged that courtly Italian, used for amatory writing, be enriched with aspects of every spoken dialect in order to establish Italian as a serious literary language. The created language would thus be one way to attempt to unify the divided Italian territories. The work was left unfinished, but it has been influential nonetheless. n March 1306, Florentine exiles were expelled from Bologna, and by August, Dante ended up in Padua, but from this point Dante’s whereabouts are not known for sure for a few years.  He died in 1321.

The Divine Comedy

The Divine Comedy is an allegory of human life presented as a visionary trip through the Christian afterlife, written as a warning to a corrupt society to steer itself to the path of righteousness: “to remove those living in this life from the state of misery, and lead them to the state of felicity.” The poem is written in the first person (from the poet’s perspective) and follows Dante’s journey through the three Christian realms of the dead: hell, purgatory, and finally heaven. The Roman poet Virgil guides Dante through hell (Inferno) and purgatory (Purgatorio), while Beatrice guides him through heaven (Paradiso). The journey lasts from the night before Good Friday to the Wednesday after Easter in the spring of 1300 (placing it before Dante’s factual exile from Florence, which looms throughout the Inferno and serves as an undercurrent to the poet’s journey). The structure of the three realms of the afterlife follows a common pattern of nine stages plus an additional, and paramount, tenth: nine circles of hell, followed by Lucifer’s level at the bottom; nine rings of purgatory, with the Garden of Eden at its peak; and the nine celestial bodies of heaven, followed by the empyrean (the highest stage of heaven, where God resides). The poem is composed of 100 cantos, written in the measure known as terza rima (thus the divine number 3 appears in each part of the poem), which Dante modified from its popular form so that it might be regarded as his own invention.circles-of-hell-in-dantes-inferno_50291c3324df2_w1500

73-best-of-dante-images-on-pinterest-levels-purgatory.jpg

 

x-paradiso.jpg

 

-Stefania

Vulgar literature in Italy

Vulgar literature develops later that the french one and it was influenced by the English and the French one as well. Literature was mainly shared in the King’s court by the French troubadours who escaped from the destruction caused by the Albigesian Crusade. Federico II, a sicilian emperor, created a community of poets who wrote poems in Sicilian current dialect (vulgar Italian). In the same year (1200), religious poetry written by Franciscan monks, spread all over Italy. The most famous one is “Cantico di frate Sole”, composed by San Francesco d’Assisi. Another important author is Jacopone da Todi (1230-1306), the author of catholic dramatic lauds.

Federico II

Jacopone da Todi

Dolce stil novo

Dolce stil novo is the name given to the most important literary movement of the 13th century in Italy. It was influenced by the Sicilian School and Tuscan poetry. The name Dolce Stil novo was used by Dante Alighieri for the first time in “La Divina Commedia”, one of the most important poems of the italian literature.

In this poetry, there was a more regular use of metaphors and symbolisms, as well as subtle double meanings. It often included profound introspection.

Spiritual elevation was the new theme connected with love in the poetry of the italian movement. Love was no longer mere courtship; the woman was no longer a metaphor, but became an angel, an intermediary creature between the earth and heaven. Her presence les man closer to God. The two main concepts (love and introspection)were bought together as the poet enters in his internal world to express his internal feelings which were caused by an excessively divine female beauty.

This poetic trend started with works by Guido Guinizzelli (1230-1276), and found the highest expression in the poetry of Guido Cavalcanti (1259-1300) and Dante Alighieri (1265-1321).

Guido Cavalcanti

Dante Alighieri

-Stefania