Vulgar literature in Italy

Vulgar literature develops later that the french one and it was influenced by the English and the French one as well. Literature was mainly shared in the King’s court by the French troubadours who escaped from the destruction caused by the Albigesian Crusade. Federico II, a sicilian emperor, created a community of poets who wrote poems in Sicilian current dialect (vulgar Italian). In the same year (1200), religious poetry written by Franciscan monks, spread all over Italy. The most famous one is “Cantico di frate Sole”, composed by San Francesco d’Assisi. Another important author is Jacopone da Todi (1230-1306), the author of catholic dramatic lauds.

Federico II

Jacopone da Todi

Dolce stil novo

Dolce stil novo is the name given to the most important literary movement of the 13th century in Italy. It was influenced by the Sicilian School and Tuscan poetry. The name Dolce Stil novo was used by Dante Alighieri for the first time in “La Divina Commedia”, one of the most important poems of the italian literature.

In this poetry, there was a more regular use of metaphors and symbolisms, as well as subtle double meanings. It often included profound introspection.

Spiritual elevation was the new theme connected with love in the poetry of the italian movement. Love was no longer mere courtship; the woman was no longer a metaphor, but became an angel, an intermediary creature between the earth and heaven. Her presence les man closer to God. The two main concepts (love and introspection)were bought together as the poet enters in his internal world to express his internal feelings which were caused by an excessively divine female beauty.

This poetic trend started with works by Guido Guinizzelli (1230-1276), and found the highest expression in the poetry of Guido Cavalcanti (1259-1300) and Dante Alighieri (1265-1321).

Guido Cavalcanti

Dante Alighieri

-Stefania

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Recensione “Le gazze ladre”

Titolo: ”Le gazze ladre”;

Autore: Ken Follet;

Genere: fiction, letteratura di guerra;

Voto: 7.5/10.

Nel lontano Maggio del 1944, una donna coraggiosa crea una squadra di donne per una pericolosa missione: donne da tutta l’Inghilterra, dalla più umile alla cantante nei bar notturni. Una storia vera, raccontata dall’autore per ricordare tutte quelle donne che sono morte per salvare l’Europa.

Avevo molte aspettative per questo libro. L’ho comprato senza pensarci due volte ma devo dire che mi aspettavo di meglio. E’ senza dubbio scritto bene e la trama è eccezionale, ma il ritmo poteva essere più veloce.  Il tema è uno dei miei preferiti: la rivoluzione, il ruolo delle donne, quello ritenuto sempre marginale, ora è principale. Il destino della guerra dipende dalle donne, da un semplice gruppo di persone che devono infiltrarsi in una fortezza tedesca. La seconda guerra mondiale mi affascina come pochi altri eventi sanno fare e, leggere libri di questo tipo, nutre la mia eccessiva curiosità. Nonostante tutto, è un peccato che questo libro sia poco conosciuto tra i lavori di Ken Follett. L’ho trovato in una stazione di servizio persa nel nulla, in mezzo alla polvere, e non credo che meriti questo trattamento.

-Stefania

Self-care and self-love

We are often too though with ourselves, we blame ourselves for literally everything that happens.

We can’t can’t do this and we can’t control most of the things we see, but we can only control our thoughts or reactions. Why should we hate ourselves? What for? Deep down we know it’s wrong (you won’t agree, I know).

We only have us at the end of day, so why this? We have to say gente words to us, we have understand our mistakes, forgive ourselves and move on. We can’t live in the past, we can live in the present moment and that’s a lot. We have to take care of our health, of our minds because we have to live, right?

An example, when we do something wrong like not respecting our plans (I feel extremely guilty) we have to tell ourselves that we’re doing the best. We struggle, waking up is already a victory! I got lower grades this year but this was one of the hardest years of my life. Why should I be so disappointed? Or why should I feel like I am the worst person in the world? I went through a lot, I’m still into it but I’m moving on. I’m forgiving myself, that’s what matters.

So they key words are : forgiving, moving on, accepting and courage. Because yes, we have to love ourselves but we also have to force us to get out of the comfort zone and LIVE. We get scared of so many things but, to get rid of the fear, we have to fight them. Are you scared of being abandoned? Tell yourself why you’re wrong, challenge your beliefs. Are you scared of being hated? Why should you be? Think about all your beautiful qualities, would you still be hated?

But what an we do to take care of our minds and bodies?

Have the right attitude

Looking at things from an optimistic frame of mind can not only decrease your stress level but bring you more success in life and more. You can even change ingrained negative thought patterns to more positive ones by using positive affirmations.

You can also change Self-Limiting Statements to Questions:  Self-limiting statements like “I can’t handle this!” or “This is impossible!” are particularly damaging because they increase your stress in a given situation and they stop you from searching for solutions. The next time you find yourself thinking something that limits the possibilities of a given situation, turn it into a question. Doesn’t “How can I handle this?” or “How is this possible?” sound more hopeful and open up your imagination to new possibilities?

Understand your emotions

Keeping your emotions bottled up may lead to an emotional explosion later on. It’s generally healthier to listen to your feelings, process them, and try to understand them. Consider them ‘messengers’ that tell you when something is not right with your world. A great way to process emotions is the act of journaling. When you write about your feelings, and potential solutions to your problems, you can reduce stress in your life and even see some health benefits.

Meditation is important as well, especially if you’re a believer.

Pamper yourself

Have a shower, use some beauty products to feel at your best! Mens sana in corpore sano.

Start a compliments file. Document the great things people say about you to read later.

Create a habit

Create a deliberate habit, and routinize something small in your life by doing it in the same way each day.

Change

Make one small change to your diet for the week. Drink an extra glass of water each day, or have an extra portion of veggies each meal.

Stay green

If you have the possibility, sit near a tree or somewhere green and relax, breathe and enjoy the sounds around you.

Tech free-time

I’ve noticed how social media can be toxic and make depressed a lot of people so it’s time to have some free-time and think about what is around you.

Make time for your passions

Do you want to be a blogger? A photographer? An IT engineer? Well, be selfish, take time for yourself and go get what you want.

By starting now, you’ll feel definitely better! It takes time but you will more connected to your body soon and nothing will look difficult as much as it did before!

Keep going.

La penisola iberica

La letteratura araba in Spagna si caratterizza per forme proprie, riscontrabili soprattutto nella poesia, che adotta la forma di stampo europeo. Sono di moda schemi di intonazione popolare riservati alla poesia erotica, mentre la vecchia “qasida” continua ad essere d’obbligo per i temi aulici. La fioritura della lirica arabo-andalusa sopravvive alla caduta del califfato omayyade (1036), fino alla metà del XIII secolo. Tra i poeti in metrica classica ricordiamo Ibn Hazm (994-1064), di Cordova, un intellettuale di grande valore, noto soprattutto come teologi, giurista, storico e polemista; famoso per la prosa, Ibn Zaidun di Corsova (1003-1070), che è cosinderato il maggiore tra i poeti classici andalusi. Abbiamo anche Ibn Quzman che dà vita a un nuovo tipo di poesia, lo zagal:la poesia strofica in arabo andaluso.

Scrittori latini e in volgare

Nel periodo della conquista araba, gli scrittori latini sono testimoni e narratori delle sofferenze dei cristiani, martirizzati dai Musulmani il principale è Alvaro di Cordova, morto nell’861, agiografo di sant’Eulogio martire, di cui è stato discepolo. Altre narrazioni agiografiche fioriscono nell’XI secolo nei monasteri spagnoli di Ripoll e di Silos, mentre fiorisce in latino la leggenda sulla traslazione e i miracoli di san Giacomo di Compostela. Si è sostenuto a lungo che il poema epico Cantar de mio Cid, composto tra il 1440 e il 1157, sia stata la prima opera della letteratura spagnola; ma nel 1948 sono venuti alla luce componimenti poetici del 1040, che hanno consentito di anticipare a quel tempo l’inizio della letteratura spagnola. Sono liriche brevi, scritte in una lingua romanza ricca di espressioni arabe.

Il cantar de mio Cid è il maggiore di tutti i cantares de gesta spagnoli, legati all’eroica stagione della Reconquista. Fu probabilmente opera di Per Abbat, un trovatore, rielaborata poi da un poeta di Medinaceli attorno al 1140. I tre canti in cui si divide il poema di tremilasettecentotrenta versi narrano le vicende di Rodrigo Dìaz de Bivar: le imprese eroiche con le quali egli cerca di essere perdonato dal re Alfonso IV, che l’aveva esiliato (Primo cantar); l’assedio e la conquista di Valenza, nonché il perdono ricevuto, dopo un processo a Toledo, in un’adunata solenne delle cortes sulle rive del Tago (Secondo cantar); la storia delle figlie del Cid, donna Elvira e donna Sol.

-Stefania

Recensione ”Il rumore dei tuoi passi”

Titolo: ”Il rumore dei tuoi passi”;

Autore: Valentina D’Urbano;

Genere: fiction;

Voto: 8.50/10.

In un luogo fatto di polvere e povertà, Beatrice e Alfredo, i ”gemelli”, si spostano nella ”Fortezza”, il quartiere in cui vivono. I due non hanno in comune il sangue, il luogo in ci vivono, ma qualcosa di più. Un’amicizia che cresce con loro, indistruttibile, che si trasforma in un amore pericoloso e vivo. All’età di vent’anni, entrambi sono stanchi e distrutti e a quell’età, per loro cambierà tutto.

Posso affermare con sicurezza che è uno dei miei libri preferiti. L’ho letto circa tre anni fa ma ora è ritornato tra le miei mani, come un figlio che avevo perso.  Mi ha preso come pochi, ha catturato la mia attenzione sin dal primo momento. Amo i libri in cui si parla di disagio nei quartieri sperduti dell’Italia. Danno visibilità a cose che altrimenti verrebbero ignorate. I morti di overdose, la povertà, la mancanza di gioia e di divertimento. Vivono tra i casermoni di cemento, senza neanche avere la possibilità di andare a mare. Diventano giovani madri senza la possibilità di tenere il bambino perché troppo povere, alcune non riescono neanche a darlo alla luce. E allora si ricorre a metodi strani e illegali, consigliati da qualche vecchia che abita in mezzo al nulla. Soffrono ma non possono dire niente, d’altronde non è nulla di nuovo. Ci sono vissute, nella sofferenza, e questo si aggiunge alla lunga sfilza di disgrazie. Intanto vanno avanti, anche quando l’amore della loro vita muore per una dose in più, per non voler affrontare la realtà. Ragazzi abusati, maltratti, che cercano a vita nella droga e poi la perdono, con la stessa velocità con cui l’hanno cercata. Intanto le parole sono inutili, nulla riesce a scuoterli, nemmeno le circostanze. Hanno deciso così, sin dal primo momento, che la fine sarebbe stata quella e nulla avrebbe potuto cambiare la loro idea.

Insieme a ”Da dove la vita è perfetta” di Silvia Avallone, è un libro veramente consigliato se volete entrare veramente in uno di quei quartieri e percorrere le stesse strade.

-Stefania

What you can do to fight depression.

If you want to know more about depression, check my article.

The first thing to do is fight your  critical self attack. Depression makes us think we don’t deserve to live, we can’t wake up in the mornings or we’re just tired enough to anything else except for sleeping. When you get those thoughts, you have to fight them. Your depression is lying to you, it took control of your life but you can’t allow it to stay forever.

To begin this process, it is helpful to think of these destructive thoughts as being like the parasites that keep you in bed when you’re sick with the flu. Don’t listen to these attacks when they tell you not to pursue your goals, to isolate yourself, or to forego an activity you enjoy. This gives the voice even more power over you. Instead, when you notice these thoughts and attitudes starting to intensify and take precedence over your more realistic, positive ways of thinking, it is essential to identify them as an alien point of view. Ask yourself, would you think such cruel thoughts about a friend or family member who was experiencing the same struggles. By having compassion for yourself and recognizing this inner voice as a destructive enemy, you can begin to see who you are more clearly and realistically.

Source

Again, exercise.

Many studies have examined the efficacy of exercise to reduce symptoms of depression, and the overwhelming majority of these studies have described a positive benefit associated with exercise involvement. For example, 30 community-dwelling moderately depressed men and women were randomly assigned to an exercise intervention group, a social support group, or a wait-list control group. The exercise intervention consisted of walking 20 to 40 minutes 3 times per week for 6 weeks. The authors reported that the exercise program alleviated overall symptoms of depression and was more effective than the other 2 groups in reducing somatic symptoms of depression (reduction of 2.4 [walking] vs. 0.9 [social support] and 0.4 [control] on the Beck Depression Inventory [BDI], p < .05). Doyne et al. utilized a multiple baseline design to evaluate the effectiveness of interval training in alleviating symptoms of depression. The participants exercised on a cycle ergometer 4 times per week, 30 minutes per session, for 6 weeks. This treatment was compared with an attention-placebo control condition in which subjects listened to audiotapes of “white noise” that they were told was subliminal assertiveness training. Results indicated that the aerobic training program was associated with a clear reduction in depression compared with the control condition, and the improvements in depression were maintained at 3 months post intervention (BDI mean reduction of 14.4 points from baseline, p < .05). In another study, just 30 minutes of treadmill walking for 10 consecutive days was sufficient to produce a clinically relevant and statistically significant reduction in depression (reduction of 6.5 points from baseline on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression.Health-and-mental-health-benefits-of-exercise.jpg

Source

Force yourself when you just don’t want to do it.

Depression is one of the hardest emotional states to endure, because the symptoms themselves can destroy your will and energy to engage in activities you once loved. Giving in to this lethargic state can give your depression even more power, whereas staying active in your life, pursuing anything and everything you may find of interest will re-ignite your spark and keep you on your own side.

For example, do you want to isolate yourself? DON’T. Humans need to interact with other humans so, even going to a public space could be extremely helpful!fe4e1ab0dfb04f943fa24f00a0e376f9.jpg

Source

Watch something funny.

Do you feel bad? Don’t punish yourself. enjoy a tv show. You can draw (highly recommended), sing or dance. You decide!

Feeling embarrassed or self-hating over your depression will only increase your symptoms and discourage you from seeking help. Your critical thoughts toward yourself will try to keep you down any way they can, including by attacking you for feeling down. It’s important to take your side and have compassion for yourself at those difficult times and this is way you need to take care of yourself. You’re growing, you’re fighting. Every warrior needs this! So have fun. As strange as it might sound, you have to work at having fun. Plan things you used to enjoy, even if they feel like a chore. Keep going to the movies. Keep going out with friends for dinner.o-woman-theater-facebook.jpg

Get in a routine.

Depression can dismantle the structure from your life.  One day melts into the next. Setting a gentle daily schedule can help you get back on track. You can create a morning routine or a night routine or just set a timer: get up and do something productive for a set amount of time.

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Get enough sleep.

What can you do? Start by making some changes to your lifestyle. Go to bed and get up at the same time every day. Try not to nap. Take all the distractions out of your bedroom — no computer and no TV. This will take time but never give up!aesthetic-bed-bed-sheets-aesthetic.jpg

You can also take vitamine supplements and, needless to say, go to a therapist. Talking about your feelings is the most important thing to do.

-Stefania