Celts and the death.

The Celts used to consider the death as an interruption of a really long life, like a bridge between a life and another. So they believed in reincarnation but it was more than this. There was a metamorphosis, metempsychosis (a term in the Greek language referring to transmigration of the soul) and, in the end, the reincarnation. That time bewteen lives was spent in the reign of the King Tech Dunn, the Donn. Donn was ”The Land of the Young” or ”The land of the living”. This land was probably on or under Bulle Island or the Beara Peninsula. However, the Underworld was called by Celts ”Annwyn”. It was ruled by Arawn, later by Gwynn ap Nudd, and it was essentially a world of delihghts and eternal youth where there was no disease and the food was really abudant. No one could reach it, except when they died or when  they found the door.k.jpg

Middle Welsh sources suggest  that the word was recognised as meaning ”very deep” or it could also mean ”underworld” according to the original term ”ande- dubnos”, a common Gallo- Brittonic word. In the Annwyn, according to the traditions, there were the descendants of the Goddes Danu, called Tùatha Dé Dannan. They were retreated into the Otherworld after they were defeated by the Milesians. The specifical Irish term for this is Aes Sidhe.

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Sometimes, a lot of heroes fought in the Underworld and they could remain there forever, without getting older. About the entrance to the Underworld, we could talk about Bran (”The Journey of Bran”) who arrived on a boat through the sea, but someone could even get there through a cave or a lake.  According to the religion, there were Paradises in the Avalon Island, also known as ”The western paradises”, where the Goddess lived. It was ruled by the nine sisters, including Morgana. These Paradises were described as gardens where apple trees of the eternal life grew. The Irish Kings received the apple of the immortality and they left the world at the sunset. During the Samhain was also possible to move from a world to another. Samhain is a Gaelic festival marking the end of the harvest season and the beginning of winter or the year. ( 31st October- 1st November). We can also remember the other parts of the year.tumblr_n06i6fmRzS1t7uz2fo1_500.jpg

Celtic burial and funeral rites.

For a warrior, it’s not surprising that to the Celts, the most honorable death was to die in a battle. Depending on the time period and which tribe you were in, you might be buried, cremated or have your ashes buried. According to  Caesar, dead people were burned on a pyre. Sheep and oxen were slain and their fat was placed on the body and their carcasses around it. Jars of honey and oil were placed around the body. The loved horses, dogs and slaves were slain, their bodies piled on top. Then it was set on fire and the ashes were taken out and laid in a gold urn. The body was washed and wrapped in a death shirt, called an Eslene. The body was laid out with burning candles in the home for seven days. People would keen over the dead or praise him or her. Three days after the body was laid out, a feast was organized in his/her honor. The body had a bowl placed on the chest where the people used to put food and coins for the dead to use in the next life.On the morning of the burial, the Druid came in the house and,  using a rod, he misured the body for the resting place. Over time and with the diffusion of Christianity, the was changed and they assumed a Christian tone.dd071ec32cb15d6b767f7ba20cd46e48

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Things you shouldn’t say to INTJs

First of all, 

The INTJ is the patient visionary with a clear view of how the future should look and will work with quiet and logical determination to make it happen. INTJs love  intellectual challenges and will be stimulated by  the abstract and the complex. The INTJs love the complex, the new and untested. Facts and figures bore them, and they will be looking to see the ‘bigger picture,’ planning for the future that they create. INTJs make decisions based on rational logic, rather than emotion and they will be quite measured in their approach to other people. They generally have strong opinions, are independent of thoughts and action and have no need to verbalise them. That’s why the members of a group feel neglected or like outsiders. This can also make the INTJs seem impenetrable to others who can totally misunderstand them. They often leave a void and people often fill this  with their own assumptions and predilections, rarely positive ones. So one person may say “he’s not interested,” another may say “she doesn’t like me,” and  another “she is so full of herself”. They don’t know -or don’t understand- that we prefere talking about meaningful topics than the stupid things of a normal boring life. We’re not interested about the new style, the weather, how to wear the new pair of jeans or other people’s life. I mean, these informations are quite useless. We’re higly introverted so, the first thing you should never say to INTJs is: ”Go out, c’mon. Why don’t we make some friends? It will be funny!”NO. NEVER.

We don’t like socializing, talking about your relationships or discussing about you kissed a boy during a party, unless you’re my best friend, then I can listen to you. I know. you would say ”it’s the same thing” and, trust me, it’s not.

Second thing :  DON’T sayGo out from your head, live the moment”.

I can’t simply go out from my mind and live the moment. I have to think about the consequences of my actions, right? And fantasizing is funny. They call me excessively cautious but you don’t really know what I can do.

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Third thing: ” Don’t be so pessimistic, good things are going to happen!”

No, I’m not pessimistic, I’m realistic, I know what could happen if you continue to act like this. Stop, please. You can’t wait for these good things, you have to create them.

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Fourth thing: ” You will have an husband so learn how to cook. You will be a mother for sure! I want a nephew”.

I decide what to do in my future, I decide to marry someone, I decide to have children, you can’t control my life or my body, sincerely, you’re no one. I don’t believe in traditions, they’re useless and we don’t need them. Who should say I have to do this? Who decides for me? No tradition or religion can force us to live a life that mabe we don’t want to live. I’m not saying I will never marry (who knows?) but I don’t want to live a normal life. I want to succeed, to be someone, not just the simple housewife (no offence). Being an INTJ woman in this world is so hard. (The 0,9%).6360371737672662741188562165_intj.jpg

Fifth thing: ”Pray, have faith. You can’t control your life, HE can”

Who?? An illusion?? A lot of INTJs are religious but this doesn’t apply to me. I can control my life, even if it’s not entirely mine, because we are part of an enviroment and everything is connected but NOT because someone in the sky decides for me. Why should I pray? Why can’t I just act like I want to?

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Sixth thing: ” Be polite, be kind, don’t offend people. You should lie sometimes to mantain the peace.”

No, sorry. The truth hasn’t to remain hidden. I don’t fake my love for you, I just can’t. Who cares about peace when you live in a lie. a55ffcffda23982518b4db580c9cc842.jpg

Seventh thing: ” You always study, you always stay alone in your room. Why don’t we go shopping?”

Studying is important, I need the things I study because everything could be useful. Studying a language is important, the new pair of jeans could wait. I could improve myself and be good in a lot of field while you remain in your ignorance.

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Eighth thing: ” Feel, don’t think. Express your feelings, tell how much you love people, hug them, don’t be antisocial!”

WHAT????????? Why should I be irrational? I keep my feelings for me and to express them I should really love you. I’m not unemotional, I’m just highly private and skeptical and I hate hugs. There’s a big difference between being asocial and antisocial, do your researches.

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Ninth thing: ‘‘Oh god are you okay??? Are you sad????? She/ He’s probably mad!”or ”Why is she/he starring at me with that face? She’s creepy..”

No, it’s just my face. I’m just thinking.

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Tenth thing: ”You can’t find solutions so easily! We need proofs!”

Do you really need to lose yourself in stupid accurate facts and data? That’s why I’m mostly right like everytime.54f4763b90db433af01f77f93e5edaae--math-patterns-intj-personality

I won’t change my identity to fit in, never and probably people will never deal with it but I really don’t care.

-Stefania

MBTI and cognitive functions.

Psychologist Carl Jung was first to observe that our brains have 8 basic, fundamental functions that it performs and that these express themselves differently in each of us. Each of us has a “dominant” function that is our strongest function and the one that comes without any effort. We have: Ni/Ne, Ti/Te, Fi/Fe, Si/Se.

Here is the link of the test: https://www.16personalities.com/

Ni: introverted intuiting;

Ne: extraverted intuiting;

Ti: introvertend thinking;

Te: extroverted thinking;

Si: introverted sensing;

Se: extroverted sensing.

First of all, we should talk about introversion and extraversion.

Extraverts are those people who talk a bit more, talk a bit louder, talk a bit faster and seem to enjoy having more people around and having more action in their lives.The definition of an extravert is someone who gets energized by having more activity in the real world. They really love staying with people 24/7 (just how??)

Introverts are those people who are more energized by being in their heads, with their own thoughts, ideas, dreams, visions etc. We love the quiet, we talk less (someone doesn’t even talk) and we don’t like parties. Too much socializing. We can’t. Maybe, there are introverts who really love going to parties but , then, they really need to stay alone to recharge the batteries. We are really judged by extraverted people and they think we can change ourselves just hanging  out everytime or finding a boyfriend. You can find us in the crowd but it happens rarely. Introversion and Extroversion.jpg

There are two worlds we all live in. The world inside of our mind which is where introverts prefer to spend most of their time, and the world external to our minds. That would be the real, physical world full of people and events. It’s the external world where extraverts prefer to spend most of their time, We have an internal world where we fantasize about everything, especially  futuristic scenarios about a war between the Dark Side and the Jedis (yes, I’m a nerd).

This depends on our brain, Some scientists discovered that introverts have more neuro chemical stimulation than extroverts. I think it all depends on the most developed emisphere. Extroverts usually use the right emisphere but, of course, it could happen that they use both the emisphere. It’s all relative, I guess.

Let’s analyse the functions.

The perceiving functions: Ne, Ni, Se, Si.

Dominant Ne:  Ne manifests as a seemingly never-ending overabundance of theories, possibilities and inventive ideas that the user is constantly picking up on.

Auxiliary Ne: Ne manifests as a plenty  of possibilities that begin to support or expand upon a thought or decision.                                                                                                          

Tertiary Ne: Ne manifests as a series of creative solutions that may go into solving a problem or achieving  a goal.                                                                                                

 Inferior Ne: Ne originally has a reluctancy to try new ways of doing things, occasionally giving way to anxiety over the unknown.

Dominant Ni: Ni manifests as a keen perception for the meaningful connections that exist between the thoughts and occurrences in the Ni-user’s environment.

Auxiliary Ni: Ni manifests as an understanding of how the person should achieve her/his goals.

Tertiary Ni: Ni manifests as the desire to optimize or perfect a skill.

Inferior Ni: Ni originally manifests as a distaste for over-analyzing what is obvious or planning for the future.

Dominant Se:the user likes to try new experience. He/She likes taking risks and he/she loves adrenaline rushes.                                                                                                            

Auxiliary Se: the user liks to be always busy, he/she can’t stay without doing anything and he/she doesn’t like quiet enviroments.

Teriarty Se: the user is really competitive and likes expensive stuff. He/she overindulges in foods and all the pleasures of life.

Inferior Se: the user can understand really well people just observing them. He/she wants to see his/her dreams becoming real.

Dominant Si: the user uses past experiences to do something in the present.

Auxiliary Si:  the  person notices even the smallest details. He/she can remember everything of a certain place.

Tertiary Si: the user feels a lot of nostalgia and he/she likes to revisit  same museums, watching the same favorite old movies, and thinking about an old idea is a lot of fun for her/him.

Inferior Si: the user  can easily forget  what he/she learned few days ago or even friend’s birthday. He/she is really random.tumblr_inline_n1im3yFgT81swdyog.jpg

The judging functions: Te, Fe, Ti, Fi.

Dominant Te:  Te manifests as the ability to clearly conceive the most effective outcomes to any given situation or problem and the ability to set the corresponding plans into action.
Auxiliary Te:  Te manifests as the ability to take concrete actions on the user’s analysis of what is the best thing to do.
Tertiary Te:  Te manifests as the ability to source whatever resources are necessary to make his/her  desire a reality.
Inferior Te: Te originally manifests as the inability to set one’s external desires or plans into motion.

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Dominant Ti:  Ti manifests as the constant identification of logical patterns that exist in ones external environment.

Auxiliary Ti: Ti manifests as the identification of how the logical systems could be manipulated to work to their advantages.

Tertiary Ti: Ti manifests as the organization of the user’s existing knowledge in a logical, systematic scheme.

Inferior Ti:   introverted thinking originally manifests as an excessively critical view of others, as it searches for objective truth.

Dominat Fe:  Fe seeks to identify what is moral and seeks for harmony.

Auxiliary Fe: Fe manifests as the urge to apply one’s understanding of situation in a way that will satisfy the desires of others.

Tertiary Fe: Fe has the ability to pick up on the motivations and emotions of those around the user. The immature Fe user  takes advantage of those feelings by manipulating them in a way that supports his/her own ends. The mature tertiary Fe user will search for a means of incorporating the needs of others into their personal plans and actions.

Inferior Fe: Fe originally manifests as the user being reluctant to  express emotional concerns, as the user cannot logically make sense of his or her own feelings.

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Dominant Fi: as a dominant function, Fi manifests as a moral compass.

Auxiliary Fi: as an auxiliary function, Fi manifests as a way of reflecting on and how the person  feels about his or her past actions.

Tertiary Fi:  Fi manifests as strong, unwavering set of morals and values  and the the person uses them to take a decision.

Inferior Fi: Fi manifests as a general antipathy for emotional expression and a fear of being judged as ‘weak’ by others.

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These are the personalities:

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To sum-up:

To all the thinkers: if you have feelings, you can still be a thinker. If you are empathic, it doesn’ mean  you are a feeler. Stop thinking you’re cool without feelings. You’re not a robot, you’re just a complex human being.

-Stefania, INTP.

Feminism and why we need it.

Do you think feminists are a bunch of angry lesbians who hate men? Do you think they are all angry single women? Do you think they’re all mad?Well, you’re wrong.

First of all, feminists fight for equal rights: they want everyone to be safe and to live their lives, free from gender roles, free from stereotypes and prejudices. They want both women and men to have equal political , economical and social rights. They want to give access to abortion and  to make the world a better place for everyone. Unfortunately, there has always been a negative stigma attached to it.  Part of this problem is the way our media sensationalizes things, trying to pass the most radical and extreme versions as the standard which, in this case, portrays a feminist as a man-hater who hates lipstick, crinkles her nose at stay-at-home moms, and unapologetically supports abortions on demand. Because of this, a lot of moviments were born like the one ”Women against feminism” which consists in women posting photos and statements like: ”I don’t need feminism because I don’t choose to ignore the fact that men have issues too” ,”I don’t need feminism because I already have equal rights” , ”Men must have the supremacy so rape is justified”.

Reading these things, I felt really disappointed and angry because, in 2017, people have still a wrong idea of what feminism means and they want to remain ignorant about the argument, which is really annoying.

A friendly reminder: being a feminist has nothing to do with how you look, what you wear, who you date, or how often you have sex. Being a feminist doesn’t mean you think women deserve special rights; it means you know we deserve equal ones. It doesn’t mean you are just a stupid lesbian who wants to rule the entire world.

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While a primary purpose of feminism is to empower women, it does not mean feminists view all women as weak and oppressed. Feminists don’t want to  make women stronger; they already know they’re strong.  We know we can do big things as everyone can, we just want to make it clear . We don’t want to be victims of stupid prejudices like ”women can’t study math or science because they have to take care of family and they will destroy the world. Men are better at leading and we have proofs.” We don’t want anyone to decide about our body and how we control it. Most of us are pro- choice so what’s wrong with people who think that feminists want to practice abortion in every case? We don’t want to rape men, to bully men, to destroy them. We just want us to be their equals, it’s not a wild concept.

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Why do we still need feminism?

There are some people who believe that feminism is a thing of the past and that we don’t need it anymore because the patriarchal system no longer exists. After all, we can vote, right? Of  course, that’s true. Indeed females vote more than men do. Women still hold less than 20 percent of seats in Congress, even though they make up more than half the population. Some believe the patriarchal system doesn’t exist because we have equal hiring opportunities. But if this were really the case would there still be a 23 percent pay gap? .Because when women are assaulted, they are often the ones who feel ashamed. We still need feminism because we teach  people to not view women as objects and not to make excuses about it such as: ”She was wearing  provocant clothes. It’s not my fault!”. Because women are told that walking alone at night makes them “an easy target.” We still need feminism because our bodies are still being legislated, because McDonald’s still asks us if we want a girl or boy toy, because we use terms like “bitch” and pussy” to imply weakness and to insult people. Stop calling other girls ”bitches”, stop defining men ”weak” because they show emotions. Emotions are important and everybody needs them, even men, who have been victims of this stupid idea since centuries. It’s okay to cry, it’s okay if you don’t like smoking, drinking, shooting or having sex everytime.Feminism_PodcastOnline.png

 

There’s nothing wrong in it. We need feminism because the female genital mutilation, the act of cutting off and retouch female genitals to prevent pleasurable sex, it can happen to girls as young as 5 months old , is still practiced in 29 countries. Because more than 120 countries don’t have laws against marital rape, and still allow child brides and some as young as 6 years old. We need it because in Afghanistan, women who go to the college, can be considered justifiable grounds for disfiguring. We need feminism because people are still agreeing that women don’t need to be paid for the same works as men, that they like the indifference and injustices so deep-seated in society that they have accepted it as a way of life. We need it because some women are killed because they decided to marry another boy and not the one who the family wanted. We need it because in Iraq, for example, women aren’t allowed to receive a proper instruction and to go out. They always need a men near them. We need it for freedom, not to kill all the men in this world. We’re not feminazis, we’re just human beings who want your happiness, nothing more.

What about the women in the past and in the present?

Olympe de Gouges, during the french revolution, fought for people rights, especially women.

”Woman is born free and lives equal to man in her rights. Social distinctions can be based only on the common utility.”

Of course, we have to remember The suffragettes and some famous women like Alice Stone Blackwell, Mary Wollstonecraft and Sojourner Truth.

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Simone De Beauvoir, in 1949 wrote ”The second sex” where seh critiques the patriarchy and the social constructs faced by women.

“Man is defined as a human being and a woman as a female — whenever she behaves as a human being she is said to imitate the male.”

Marlene Dietrich helped the moviment through fashion. She wore men’s trousers and suits when it was considered extremely scandalous and a taboo. She was arrested for this in 1930.

Gloria Steinem was a social  activist, writer, editor, and lecturer and she has  been an outspoken champion of women’s rights since the late 1960s.

“A gender-equal society would be one where the word ‘gender’ does not exist: where everyone can be themselves.”
We have to remember Yoko Ono, Alice Walker, Hillary Clinton, Oprah Winfrey, Madonna, Sheryl Sandberg, Malala Yousafzai, Angelina Jolie, Beyonce and Audrey Hepburn and Rosie The Riveter.o-FEMINISM-facebook.jpg

As a feminist, I find men really funny because they start no drama, they usually don’t judge you and they help you, no matter what.

-Stefania